The magnesium miracle - a comprehensive mineral
Although magnesium is present in many foods, its latent deficiency is surprisingly common in the population, especially in diabetics, and is linked to vitamin D deficiency, which is at least as common. Magnesium promotes the synthesis of vitamin D from sunlight in the skin. Magnesium addition also increases the vitamin D content in the blood and tissues.
The simultaneous deficiency of these two nutritional factors is common in diabetics (and among abundant alcohol users), and it causes major health problems. Did you know that magnesium also prevents joint problems and bone loss? Magnesium deficiency causes many adverse physical and psychological effects.
A large American survey showed that although most (9/10) people know that magnesium is an important and beneficial mineral, the vast majority (7/10) could not say what, and how it affects. We are trying to figure this out in this review.
What is magnesium
Magnesium is the fourth most common and the second most common intracellular cation in the body. Magnesium adjusts the passage of the cations of the heart muscle cells (Na +, K +, Ca +) through the cellular channels to regulate the action potential and thus prevents cardiac arrhythmias, Torsade de Pointes and post-operative atrial fibrillation. Magnesium also improves the safety of anti-arrhythmic drugs. Magnesium prevents, for example, vascular calcification and the resulting circulatory disorders. Smoking lowers blood magnesium levels, causing many health hazards.
The magnesium miracle
High intake of magnesium significantly reduces the risk of hypertension, depression, stroke, heart failure, and premature death, indicating meta-analysis of more than 1 million people. Magnesium can quickly cure clinical depression, indicated by a new clinical study at Vermont University. It supports a number of previous research reports and practical experiences.
Magnesium prevents heart related and other deaths, indicated by a German 10-year follow-up study. Magnesium can prevent strokes, says a large meta-analysis in Sweden. Magnesium supplement suppresses low-grade chronic inflammation, which is common with (pre) diabetics. The effect is manifested by lower levels of eg. hs-CRP in the blood. An oral magnesium supplement improves the sugar and fat balance and blood pressure of type 2 diabetics since almost all diabetics have magnesium deficiency, although not always seen in a serum test. Magnesium oxide is an excellent nutritional supplement that is widely used in clinics, to e.g. prevent kidney stones. Magnesium oxide remedies deficiency very well and treats depression.
In Japan, doctors generally prescribe magnesium oxide in outpatient treatment for aging people and it’s well absorbed in the blood. Magnesium enhances physical fitness and improves congestive functions, writes American and Chinese researchers in their literature review of the prestigious Nutrients journal. Magnesium can be purchased from health stores, pharmacies and grocery stores. Magnesium products are cheap and safe.
The scarcity of magnesium and zinc in the diet of young people is often associated with outbreaks of disturbances, as evidenced by the University of Western Australia research. The results support the provision of food supplements for such young people.
Magnesium benefits and effects in a nutshell
participate in vitamin D synthesis
gives energy to muscle and heart cells
adds physical performance and endurance
prevents arteriosclerosis and heart and brain stroke
speeding up recovery from cardiovascular and cerebral infarctions
prevents and treat cardiac arrhythmias
prevents and treats heart failure
prevents blood pressure from rising
acts as a statin (lowers cholesterol)
to enhance insulin activity
inhibits insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
to strengthen the bones
prevents the loss of hearing
prevents kidney stones (calcium oxalate)
prevent epileptic seizures
can help in painful menstruation (PMS)
prevents restless legs syndrome
increases resistance to inflammation, cancer and aging
increases the performance of athletes and fitness enthusiasts
works synergistically with vitamin B
nourish the nerves and can help with hearing aids and ADHD syndrome and reduce aggressiveness and violent behavior
prevents stress, anxiety and depression and improves sleep quality
can help with asthma and other allergies
reduces the risk of colon cancer
protects liver from alcohol
consumed during pregnancy reduces the risk of cerebral palsy
to improve the performance of older women
prevents kidney damage caused by sisplatin (cellular urea)
Introduction to magnesium
Scotland's Joseph Black discovered magnesium in 1755. It was made as pure metal for the first time in 1808. Magnesium has countless uses in the industry. The white powder that the gymnasts and weightlifters take into their hands is magnesium.
Leroy first showed in 1926 that magnesium is a mineral essential for humans and animals. The magnesium deficiency in humans was reported for the first time in 1930, and the substance has been studied since then very thoroughly.
The magnesium miracle
Magnesium has enormously positive effects on the body. It produces energy in the muscle and heart cells (ATP) and prevents calcium from penetrating into these cells. In other words, magnesium protects the heart in the same way as new heart medicines, calcium channel blockers. With this same mechanism, magnesium is likely to also prevent migraine and prevent the blood pressure from rising to too high. According to new studies, magnesium affects dozens of genes that regulate insulin secretion and glycemic control. The recommended dose of magnesium should be increased from the present 350 mg to at least 500 mg per day (the recommendation for women is only 280 mg / day, which is far too low). Magnesium is safe and can’t be overdosed by self-care as long as the dosage instructions are followed. Magnesium is well suited for completing drug treatments.
An adult person has 20 to 28 grams of magnesium, most of which is within the cells. There magnesium provides vital enzymatic functions. Much of the magnesium in the body is in bones (~ 52%), muscles (28%) and soft tissues (19%). It is only 0.3% in serum and 0.5% in red blood cells.
Measurement of magnesium serum (as is often done in clinical laboratories) does not give a very accurate picture of human magnesium balance. Serum acts only as an intermediary when magnesium is transferred from the bones to metabolically active tissues (such as the brain), and the serum magnesium content does not reflect the magnesium status of the body. Magnesium should preferably be measured from red blood cells or whole blood. If this were done, it would appear that the latent magnesium deficiency is quite common.
Only about 5% of magnesium in cells is free of ionized magnesium (Mg2 +), which means that most magnesium is bound to other molecules such as proteins and phospholipids. Only Mg2 + reacts physiologically and biochemically in cell homeostasis (and, for example, in the glucose metabolism).
Lack of magnesium is common, especially in (pre) diabetics, and that increases their risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other complications. Magnesium is a very useful nutritional supplement for people with diabetes and those at risk. The abundant and regular intake of alcohol causes magnesium deficiency, which can adversely affect the cerebellum.
Millimoles and milligrams
Physicians and laboratories speak about magnesium in general in millimoles per milliliter, while in the health food industry has been maintained in old milligrams of mg. They correspond to each other so that 5 mmol is about 121.5 mg and 15 mmol is approximately 350 mg. We use mg units in this review, but each one can convert them into millimools if desired.
Magnesium dosage: Need and recommendations
People should apparently have 500-600 mg of magnesium in their diet, but the recommended dose is only 280-350 mg / day. Even in the early 20th century, people received about 1200 mg of magnesium daily in the food. The bread was then made of wholegrain that was ground in a nearby mill. Nowadays, the food is so refined that the intake of magnesium has dropped to one third.
Most people receive less than 300 mg of magnesium per day. It is estimated that 80% of the population gets too little magnesium from their food. On average people receive about 40% of the recommended number, which is really low considering of optimal health. According to a study by more than 5,000 people in France, 23% of women and 18% of men received magnesium less than 66% of the recommendation.
Magnesium rich foods
Good sources of magnesium in the diet include vegetables (eg banana, broccoli), whole grain, meat and fish. Milk contains magnesium 28-40 mg / l. A large part of older people have latent magnesium deficiency, which weakens their physical performance. And conversely, the use of magnesium as a nutritional supplement improves it. According to another study, magnesium enhances the activity of insulin, which prevents insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Absorption and biological usage of magnesium
Magnesium begins to absorb within one hour of its intake and the absorption continues for about 8 hours. When the magnesium intake is 300-350 mg a day, 25 to 50% of the magnesium from the intestines is absorbed into the blood unless there is a deficiency in the body. As the magnesium intake decreases, the rate of absorption increases. The body strives to ensure the highest possible intake. When intake is low (less than 240 mg / meal), magnesium is absorbed by an active transport mechanism, whereby 50-95% of the consumed magnesium is absorbed. When a meal contains a lot of magnesium (over 240 mg / meal), it is absorbed by another mechanism, whereby the absorbed proportion remains at 15 to 45 percent. High intake of lime, phosphorus, zinc, protein (protein) and vegetable phytates, animal fat and fiber reduces absorption and abuse of magnesium. The absorption of magnesium requires the presence of selenium, vitamin B6 and vitamin D and parathyroid parathyroid hormone. Magnesium is excreted in the urine at about 100-150 mg / day. Lime, sodium and some hormones regulate the secretion of magnesium into the urine.
Best form of magnesium
Magnesium is most widely used as a sulphate, which is the most common magnesium salt for hospital use. Magnesium oxide (MgO) and many other Mg salts (eg citrate) are well absorbed. There are no significant differences in the absorption of different products, even if the advertising of different preparations is attempted to be claimed. For example, in the study published in 2001, no differences were found between magnesium oxide, sulphate, carbonate, phosphate, aspartate, gluconate, basorbate and sorption. Rich lime and fiber intake may reduce absorption of magnesium somewhat, while prebiotics boost it.
How does magnesium work?
Magnesium increases the overall immune system and protects people from many changes in metabolism, disease, degeneration and aging. In particular, magnesium calms the nerves, prevents and treats stress, protects the heart from arrhythmias, coronary heart disease, and infarct. Magnesium also prevents cancer, especially breast cancer. Magnesium improves the performance and durability of athletes and fitness enthusiasts. Magnesium absorption requires B and D vitamins. The combination of magnesium and vitamin B has also been helpful in the treatment of autism.
Magnesium deficiency and levels in cells
Cells need magnesium to distribute and produce enzymes. They take care of the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Excessive magnesium intake reduces the permeability of cell membranes, causing cells to leak potassium and magnesium. At the same time, too much sodium and calcium are fed into the cells. The inflow of sodium leads to a vicious circle where the cell membrane permeability is further increased and cell activity suffers and cell damages and dies. Magnesium is a natural and effective calcium blocker. In muscle and heart cells, magnesium participates in the production of ATP molecules, ie energy.
Magnesium benefits: Heart, muscle and blood vessels
Muscle work requires a lot of energy that magnesium produces. Its lack leads to weakening and fatigue of muscle strength, and magnesium addition increases performance. Magnesium is very important for heart muscle, and it also prevents blood pressure from getting too high. Cardiac patients often have latent magnesium deficiency, and repairing it as a supplement to food improves the patient's clinical condition significantly. The latent lack of magnesium causes cardiac arrhythmias.
Magnesium prevents and directly treats cardiovascular diseases. The PubMed database has thousands of scientific researches that magnesium is useful for a heart attack patient.
Magnesium lowers adult elevated systole and diastolic blood pressure, indicated by a new meta-analysis. It included 34 separate placebo-controlled double-blind studies involving more than 2,000 people. The intake of magnesium as a nutritional supplement (365-450 mg / day) lowers an average elevated systolic blood pressure of 4.18 mmHg and diastol 2.27 mmHg in people with insulin resistance, pre diabetes, or other non-contagious long-term illness, reports a new report in the world's leading journal of nutrition. 11 meta-analyzes were selected for this meta-analysis, involving 543 people. Many can get rid of their antihypertensive drug with magnesium alone.
Long-term deficiency of magnesium can cause aortic, carotid and limb blood vessel shedding, ie arteriosclerosis. Magnesium strengthens the inner surface of the artery and prevents it from collapsing inward which is often the immediate cause of a heart or brain stroke. There are already 238 scientific reports available in the MEDLINE database on the effect of strengthening the blood vessel wall of the magnesia.
In a double-blind study, 50 subjects with coronary heart disease enjoyed 750 mg / day of magnesium, thereby significantly improving their fatigue resistance. In the second randomized trial, the risk of 42 blood clots in the subject decreased. Magnesium suppressant prevents excessive blood pressure elevation, most commonly with selenium, zinc and folic acid, and other vitamins B as well as essential fatty acids. The MEDLINE database contains approximately 1400 scientific reports of the effect of magnesium on blood pressure. Magnesium also protects brain cells from damage caused by brain stenosis.
Calcium and magnesium
Magnesium and calcium are a mineral pair that should be balanced. Unfortunately, lack of magnesium and vitamin D are common, and they confuse calcium metabolism, for example. so that a calcium consumed as a dietary supplement can increase the risk of arterial hypertension - but only with vitamin D and magnesium deficiency. This explains the general perception and some clinical trials. Magnesium should always be used with lime (Ca: K = 2: 1).
Magnesium benefits: Migraine headaches
There has been much research on the effect of magnesium on the prevention and treatment of migraine. Magnesium supplement appears to prevent migraine (including menstrual migraines). In a double blind trial, 81 migraine patients enjoyed 600 mg of magnesium daily for 12 weeks. During the last three weeks of treatment, the number of migraine attacks decreased by 42%, compared with 16% in placebo-controlled controls. Two other studies yielded similar results, but no difference was found in the study with placebo. In some studies, magnesium given directly to the vein has brought almost instantaneous aid. If you suffer from migraine then you should try magnesium, preferably with vitamin B.
Magnesium benefits: ADHD syndrome (learning and concentration disorders, hyperactivity)
The lack of magnesium can cause widespread neurological and psychiatric disorders. The reason for the deficiency may be the inadequate intake of food and / or the child's rapid growth. Kozielec and Starobrat-Hermel are studying 116 ADHD children (7-12 years) of hair, red blood cells and serum magnesium concentrations. According to the results, 95% had lower concentrations than normal (serum magnesium was 34% lower than normal, but this study does not depict the importance of magnesium because it is most within cells). Of the children with a deficiency of magnesium, 50 received magnesium 200 mg / day for 6 months. As the controls, there were 30 other similar children who received similar treatment, but not magnesium. The magnesium-rich status improved considerably compared to controls (Conners parent and teacher ratings (ES = 1.2-1.4).
Magnesium benefits: Tourette syndrome
Tourette Syndrome is related to ADHD, so the latent lack of magnesium may also be associated with this syndrome. So, with addition of fatty acid, it is also worth adding a magnesium addition. For those under the age of 7 175 mg / day and for larger ones 175 to 350 mg / day. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is well absorbed, effective and safe. If the belly goes too loose, the dose will be reduced.
Magnesium benefits: Youth crime
The UK Prison Service survey showed that among juvenile criminals magnesium supply is virtually only 74% of the recommended value, even though prison food responded to nutritional recommendations. This is because the prisoners do not actually eat all the food they are offered. When the prisoners' diet was supplemented with vitamins, minerals, trace elements and fatty acids, violence decreased dramatically.
Magnesium benefits: Hearing
In a double-blind study in a military, a magnesium dose of 167 mg / day prevented hearing loss. Scientists at the Humnboldt University in Berlin have shown in guinea pigs that the magnesium suppression prevents the circulation of the blood from the inner ear and the oxidation. Magnesium therefore prevents noise in the ears. A new study confirms this finding: The combination of magnesium and vitamins A, C and E prevents hearing damage caused by noise.
Magnesium benefits: Kidney stones
Most often the kidney stones are calcium oxalate. In the test tube, magnesium prevents the formation of calcium oxalate. Also in rat experiments, the administration of magnesium has prevented kidney stones. The results of human studies are contradictory. In a two-year study, 66 magnesium-treated subjects had less kidney stones than 34 controls. There were no differences between the magnesium and the placebo groups in a 124-person double blind experiment. The result was therefore non-positive, but it does not prove that magnesium supplements could be effective.
Magnesium benefits: Menstrual problems
Intake of magnesium reduces the swelling of the stomach and legs associated with the menstrual period, the tenderness of the breast, the weight gain and the mood fluctuations. Migraine headache associated with menstruation is also reduced. Some psychiatrists have been studying and recommending magnesium to treat PMS. The MEDLINE database currently has 34 scientific research reports on the effects of magnesium on PMS syndrome.
Magnesium benefits: Cramps and restless feet
Magnesium reduces cramps and so-called Restless Legs symptoms. In one study 73 pregnant women used magnesium or placebo for 3 weeks. Restless feet were significantly reduced with magnesium.
Magnesium benefits: Bones
Each additional 100 mg / day of magnesium increases the bone density by 2%, indicated by a new American study. On this basis, geriatricians now recommend magnesium to aging as a supplement to food. A new study suggests that magnesium also strengthens the bones of young girls. Magnesium prevents osteoarthritis and bone loss.
Magnesium benefits: Immune system and asthma
Magnesium improves both cellular and antibody-based immune function. In animal tests (mouse, rat, hamster) the immunoglobulin concentration decreases by as much as 60% when magnesium inhibition is restricted. The most decreases IgG, but IgA, IgM and IgE are also reduced. It is thought that blood B-white cells can not be transformed into antibody-producing plasma cells in the absence of magnesium. Magnesium may also affect the immune system via antibodies and macrophages. T-white cells regulate a defense system that requires both magnesium and calcium in proper proportions. T-white cells are then transformed into "killer cells", destroying, among other things, cancerous cells. Lack of magnesium increases allergies (eg atopic dermatitis and asthma) and exposes to cancer diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma, bacterial and fungal infections.
Magnesium benefits: Chemotherapy
Magnesium prevents cytostatics , for example to cause kidney damage caused by sisplatin. Sisplatin causes kidney damage in 25 to 42% of patients. We recommend 350 mg of magnesium oxide in all cancer patients receiving sisplatin, whatever the serum magnesium content is. It is recommended to use magnesium at least a year after chemotherapy, since the sisplatin is heavy metal, which leaves the body very slowly within about 8 months.
Magnesium benefits: Depression
Magnesium is a great natural substance for preventing and treating depression, writes Polish researchers in their reviews. The use of magnesium in dietary supplements relieves anxiety, writes the Leeds University psychologists in their recall. We recommend that magnesium be taken with Vitamin D, E-EPA, berberin, carnosine and other antidepressant supplements to give good interaction.
Magnesium benefits: Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome
More than half a million people and more than 25,000 diabetics (meta-analysis) indicate that the greater the magnesium intake, the lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Diabetics generally have a lack of magnesium, due to increased magnesium secretion into the urine, contributing to their risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and other congestive diseases. Studies and practical experiences support the use of magnesium supplements as complementary therapy for diabetes. Magnesium oxide is a preferred magnesium preparation. The best tablets include folic acid and vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, which improve absorption and efficacy of magnesium.
How common is the lack of magnesium in the population?
Approximately 16,000 non-selective human German studies provide a good picture: When the limit of the deficiency was set at plasma / serum values of 0.76 mmol Mg / l, 14.5% of the examined subjects were below the limit. Deficiency was most common in women and the elderly. In the elderly women, there was a third of the deficiency. The finding is of utmost importance because magnesium deficiency is predisposed to memory disturbances and otherwise to mental decline and depression.
In Italy, blood magnesium concentrations in more than 1,000 blood pressure patients were measured in 81 different hospitals. The lack of magnesium was common. The greater the shortage, the worse memory the patients had. Both studies described above emphasize the importance of magnesium supplement, especially for the elderly.
Magnesium deficiency symptoms
Long-term lack of magnesium causes many gradually creeping symptoms: fatigue, muscle weakness, muscle cramps, tremors, cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension. The lack of magnesium of the expectant mother may cause problems with fetal development and during pregnancy (miscarriage or child birth weight). Magnesium has been successfully used for decades as a safe and effective treatment for pre-eclampsia.
The latent deficiency of magnesium is combined in scientific literature with many diseases and symptoms: asthma, cardiovascular diseases, kidney and liver diseases, migraine, MS, greenbone, Alzheimer's disease, recurrent bacterial and fungal infections, stomach upsets, mood swings, hearing loss, fatigue, diabetes, power disturbances and impotence, fibromyalgia and various cancers.
Magnesium is used in school medicine and complementary medicine as a generally good conditioner, and it is administered at high concentrations as a medicine. In hospitals, magnesium is administered as an injection or infusion into a vein, whereby the effect is often dramatic: sometimes an unconscious patient wakes up immediately and is oriented towards time and place. Magnesium has been used for decades as a treatment for, among other things, in pregnancy (eclampsia), where its safety for both the mother and the fetus has been demonstrated.
In complementary self-care, magnesium is consumed orally in tablets and sometimes also as a powder mixed with water. Magnesium is present in many nutritional supplements either as such or combined with lime and other minerals and vitamins. Magnesium can also be used in tobacco and alcohol weaning, as magnesium calms the nerves. The use of magnesium as a nutritional supplement is not in itself controversial with any medication, but it is important to take into consideration what is discussed below about the interactions.
Magnesium and interaction with medicines and other supplements
Magnesium can be taken with other dietary supplements and medicines, including potassium, thiazide diuretics and estrogen. A two hour time difference is recommended when using ACE inhibitors, tetracyclines, quinolone, phenytoin, zantaca, digoxin and zinc. When using sulphonylurea (oral anti-diabetes medication), magnesium is recommended under medical supervision because magnesium can increase blood sugar levels more than expected and cause hypoglycaemia.